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autonomous entrepreneur

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Fang Lee Cooke & Mengtian Xiao (2021) Women entrepreneurship in China: where are we now and where are we heading, Human Resource Development International, 24:1, 104-121, DOI: 10.1080/13678868.2020.1842983



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The term "autonomous entrepreneurs" in the Chinese context generally refers to individuals who start their own businesses, often in response to government initiatives encouraging self-employment and entrepreneurship. Here's what is known about autonomous entrepreneurs in China based on the information provided in the document:

1. The Chinese government has been actively promoting autonomous entrepreneurship as a way to address mounting employment pressures and stimulate economic growth. This is particularly evident in the "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" initiative launched by Premier Li Keqiang in 2014.

2. University graduates are a key target group for these autonomous entrepreneurship initiatives. The government sees graduate entrepreneurship as a way to tackle unemployment among university graduates while also generating new job opportunities more broadly.

3. Policies to support autonomous entrepreneurs include skills training allowances, micro-credit loan guarantees with discounts, and tax benefits. For example, since 2009, over 222 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women to support their new businesses and careers.

4. Women are playing an increasingly prominent role as autonomous entrepreneurs in China. The "Entrepreneurial Innovation for Ambitious Women" action plan launched in 2015 specifically encourages women to engage in innovation and entrepreneurship, especially in emerging industries. Approximately 55% of new Internet businesses in China were founded by women as of 2015.

5. While the exact definition is not provided, the term "autonomous entrepreneurs" seems to encompass a range of self-employment and entrepreneurial activities, from individual freelancers and small business owners to high-growth technology startups founded by university graduates.

6. The promotion of autonomous entrepreneurship is part of the Chinese government's broader economic strategy of encouraging mass innovation and cultivating new engines of economic growth, particularly in emerging sectors like technology and services.

In summary, autonomous entrepreneurs are a growing force in China's economic landscape, spurred by government policies, changing economic conditions, and evolving attitudes towards self-employment and innovation. Women are playing an increasingly significant role as autonomous entrepreneurs, although they still face unique challenges and barriers in their entrepreneurial pursuits.

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